Pharmacokinetics

Minocycline is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is
not significantly affected by the presence of food or moderate amounts
of milk. Oral doses of 200 mg followed by 100 mg every 12 hours are
reported to produce plasma concentrations within the range of 2 to 4
micrograms per mL. It is more lipid-soluble than doxycycline and the
other tetracyclines and is widely distributed in body tissues and fluids
with high concentrations being achieved in the hepatobiliary tract,
lungs, sinuses and tonsils, as well as in tears, saliva, and sputum.
Penetration into the CSF is relatively poor, although a higher ratio of
CSF to blood concentrations has been reported with minocycline than with
doxycycline. It crosses the placenta and is distributed into breast
milk. About 75% of minocycline in the circulation is bound to plasma
proteins. It has a low renal clearance: only about 5 to 10% of a dose is
excreted in the urine and up to about 34% is excreted in the faeces.
However, in contrast to most tetracyclines it appears to undergo some
metabolism in the liver, mainly to 9-hydroxyminocycline. Sources differ
as to whether the normal plasma half-life of 11 to 26 hours is
prolonged, with a consequent risk of accumulation, in patients with
renal impairment, but hepatic impairment does not appear to lead to
accumulation. Little minocycline is removed by dialysis.

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Indication
& Dosage

 


Oral
INFECTIONS CAUSED BY SUSCEPTIBLE ORGANISMS. PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE:

100mg b.i.d. for 14-21 days.
GONORRRHOEA: Males 100mg b.i.d for 5 days. Females 100mg b.i.d for 10
days.
NONGONOCOCCAL URETHRITIS: 100mg once daily for 10-14 days.
CHANCROID: 100mg b.i.d for 10 days.
LYMPHOGRANULOMA VENEREUM: 100mg b.i.d for 14-23 days.
SYPHILIS: 100mg b.i.d for 16 days.
GRANULOMA INGUINALE: 100mg b.i.d till complete healing occurs.
OTHER INFECTIONS: 200mg intially followed by 100mg b.i.d.
ACNE: 50mg b.i.d for minimum of 6 weeks.

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Action
 

Primarily bacteriostatic through inhibition of bacterial protein
synthesis. Susceptible organisms include Haemophilus, Brucella, Listeria
monocytogenes, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, campylobacter, Vibrio cholerae,
Yersinia pestis, Bacteroides, Enterobacter, E. coli, Klebsiella,
Shigella. Strep viridans group, Strep pneumoniae, Strep. pyogenes,
Chlamydia, Clostriduim, Treponema pallidum etc.

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Interactions
 

Minocycline has a lower affinity for binding with calcium than
tetracycline. In a consequence its absorption is less affected by milk
and food, although it is still affected by iron salts and antacids.
 
Adverse
Effect & Precaution

Nausea, epigastric distress, vomiting, skin rash, ataxia, dizziness,
vertigo, nystagmus.

Precaution: During chronic therapy check periodically renal, hepatic and
hematopoeitic functions.
Pregnancy: Contraindicated.
Breast Feeding: Contraindicated.
Man: Use with caution.

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Brand
available in market

 

CYNOMYCIN Wyeth Lederle
CAPS 50mg 6 48.55
CAPS 100mg 4 61.66

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Pharmacokinetics

Minocycline is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is not significantly affected by the presence of food or moderate amounts of milk. Oral doses of 200 mg followed by 100 mg every 12 hours are reported to produce plasma concentrations within the range of 2 to 4 micrograms per mL. It is more lipid-soluble than doxycycline and the other tetracyclines and is widely distributed in body tissues and fluids with high concentrations being achieved in the hepatobiliary tract, lungs, sinuses and tonsils, as well as in tears, saliva, and sputum. Penetration into the CSF is relatively poor, although a higher ratio of CSF to blood concentrations has been reported with minocycline than with doxycycline. It crosses the placenta and is distributed into breast milk. About 75% of minocycline in the circulation is bound to plasma proteins. It has a low renal clearance: only about 5 to 10% of a dose is excreted in the urine and up to about 34% is excreted in the faeces. However, in contrast to most tetracyclines it appears to undergo some metabolism in the liver, mainly to 9-hydroxyminocycline. Sources differ as to whether the normal plasma half-life of 11 to 26 hours is prolonged, with a consequent risk of accumulation, in patients with renal impairment, but hepatic impairment does not appear to lead to accumulation. Little minocycline is removed by dialysis.

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Indication & Dosage

Oral
INFECTIONS CAUSED BY SUSCEPTIBLE ORGANISMS. PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE:
100mg b.i.d. for 14-21 days.
GONORRRHOEA: Males 100mg b.i.d for 5 days. Females 100mg b.i.d for 10 days.
NONGONOCOCCAL URETHRITIS: 100mg once daily for 10-14 days.
CHANCROID: 100mg b.i.d for 10 days.
LYMPHOGRANULOMA VENEREUM: 100mg b.i.d for 14-23 days.
SYPHILIS: 100mg b.i.d for 16 days.
GRANULOMA INGUINALE: 100mg b.i.d till complete healing occurs.
OTHER INFECTIONS: 200mg intially followed by 100mg b.i.d.
ACNE: 50mg b.i.d for minimum of 6 weeks.

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Action

Primarily bacteriostatic through inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis. Susceptible organisms include Haemophilus, Brucella, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, campylobacter, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia pestis, Bacteroides, Enterobacter, E. coli, Klebsiella, Shigella. Strep viridans group, Strep pneumoniae, Strep. pyogenes, Chlamydia, Clostriduim, Treponema pallidum etc.

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Interactions

Minocycline has a lower affinity for binding with calcium than tetracycline. In a consequence its absorption is less affected by milk and food, although it is still affected by iron salts and antacids.

Adverse Effect & Precaution

Nausea, epigastric distress, vomiting, skin rash, ataxia, dizziness, vertigo, nystagmus.

Precaution: During chronic therapy check periodically renal, hepatic and hematopoeitic functions.
Pregnancy: Contraindicated.
Breast Feeding: Contraindicated.
Man: Use with caution.

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CYNOMYCIN

Wyeth Lederle

CAPS

50mg

6

48.55

CAPS

100mg

4

61.66

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