Drug Information

 

 





Acarbose

  












Pharmacokinetics

 

Given orally less than 2% is
absorbed as the oral drug. It is metabolized in the GI tract primarily
by intestinal bacteria and to a lesser degree by digestive enzymes.
Urine contains 2% drug and its metabolites. As a result, accumulation of
the drug does not occur when given thrice daily.

 

Indication
and Dosage




First line therapy in NIDDM
inadequately controlled by diet; adjunct to existing conventional oral
hypoglycaemic agents where hypoglycaemic control is inadequate.

Dosage: 50mg initially increased to 50mg
thrice daily; if required may be increased after 6-8 weeks to 100mg
thrice daily. Max 200mg thrice daily.

 

Action

An
oligosaccharide obtained from a fermentation process using the
microorganism Actinoplans utahensis. Causes a competitive, reversible
inhibition of pancreatic alpha-amylase and membrane-bound intestinal
alpha-glucosidase hydrolase enzymes. This causes delayed glucose
absorption resulting in a smaller increase in blood glucose following
meals. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels are decreased in those with
non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Because the mechanism of action
is different from sulfonylureas (i.e., enhance insulin secretion),
acarbose is additive to the effect of sulfonylureas. Approximately 65%
of an oral dose of acarbose remains in the GI tract, which is the site
of action. Metabolized in the GI tract by both intestinal bacteria and
intestinal enzymes. The acarbose and metabolites that are absorbed are
excreted in the urine.

Interactions

Charcoal /
Effect of acarbose

Digestive enzymes /
Effect of acarbose


Digoxin / Serum digoxin
levels


Insulin /
Hypoglycemia which may cause severe hypoglycemia


Sulfonylureas /
Hypoglycemia which may cause severe hypoglycemia

 

Adverse
Effect & Precautions


 

Flatulence, soft stools,
diarrhea, abdominal distention and pain, rarely abnormal liver function
tests and skin reaction.

Precaution: Monitor hepatic function tests
specially with higher doses. May enhance hyprglycaemic effects of
sulphonylureas (if it occurs give glucose and not sucrose).

Pregnancy: Contraindicated

Breast Feeding: Contraindicated.

Man: May be used.

  

Brand
available in markets


 






       
GLUCOBAY     Bayer
TAB 10 50mg 55.00
       


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Drug Information
 

 

Acarbose
  

Pharmacokinetics
 
Given orally less than 2% is absorbed as the oral drug. It is metabolized in the GI tract primarily by intestinal bacteria and to a lesser degree by digestive enzymes. Urine contains 2% drug and its metabolites. As a result, accumulation of the drug does not occur when given thrice daily.
 

Indication and Dosage

First line therapy in NIDDM inadequately controlled by diet; adjunct to existing conventional oral hypoglycaemic agents where hypoglycaemic control is inadequate.
Dosage: 50mg initially increased to 50mg thrice daily; if required may be increased after 6-8 weeks to 100mg thrice daily. Max 200mg thrice daily.
 

Action

An oligosaccharide obtained from a fermentation process using the microorganism Actinoplans utahensis. Causes a competitive, reversible inhibition of pancreatic alpha-amylase and membrane-bound intestinal alpha-glucosidase hydrolase enzymes. This causes delayed glucose absorption resulting in a smaller increase in blood glucose following meals. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels are decreased in those with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Because the mechanism of action is different from sulfonylureas (i.e., enhance insulin secretion), acarbose is additive to the effect of sulfonylureas. Approximately 65% of an oral dose of acarbose remains in the GI tract, which is the site of action. Metabolized in the GI tract by both intestinal bacteria and intestinal enzymes. The acarbose and metabolites that are absorbed are excreted in the urine.

Interactions

Charcoal / Effect of acarbose Digestive enzymes / Effect of acarbose Digoxin / Serum digoxin levels Insulin / Hypoglycemia which may cause severe hypoglycemia Sulfonylureas / Hypoglycemia which may cause severe hypoglycemia
 

Adverse Effect & Precautions
 
Flatulence, soft stools, diarrhea, abdominal distention and pain, rarely abnormal liver function tests and skin reaction.
Precaution: Monitor hepatic function tests specially with higher doses. May enhance hyprglycaemic effects of sulphonylureas (if it occurs give glucose and not sucrose).
Pregnancy: Contraindicated
Breast Feeding: Contraindicated.
Man: May be used.
  

 

 

 

 

GLUCOBAY

 

 

Bayer

TAB

10

50mg

55.00

 

 

 

 

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By |2022-07-20T16:41:35+00:00July 20, 2022|Uncategorized|Comments Off on Acarbose

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