Drug
Information

        


    



Dexamethasone
 

    











 

Pharmacokinetics

 



Dexamethasone is readily absorbed
from the gastrointestinal tract. Its biological half-life in plasma is
about 190 minutes. Binding of dexamethasone to plasma proteins is less
than for most other corticosteroids. Up to 65% of a dose is excreted in
urine within 24 hours. Clearance in premature neonates is reported to be
proportional to gestational age, with a reduced elimination rate in the
most premature. It crosses the placenta.

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Indication &
Dosage


 


im/iv

Shock, Status, Asthamaticus, Anaphylaxis, Allergic Reactions, Toxaemia :
Initial dose 0.5-20mg. Repeated as required. Total daily dose not to
exceed 80mg even in severe conditions. Children: 200-500micrograms/kg
daily.

Oral

Allergic reactions, Asthama, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Sink conditions,
Lupus Erythematosis and other steroid responsive conditions:3-6mg/day

IV

Cerebral Oedema: Initially 10mg IV followed by 4mg every 6 hours IM
until symptoms subside. Response seen usually in 12-24 hrs. Dosage may b
reduced after 2-4 days. Drug may be discontinued gradually over 5-7
days.In recurrent or inoperable brain tumors:2mg 2 or 3 times daily IM



Topical Skin

Various Types of Eczemas including infantile Eczema, Dermatitis
including otitis externa, intertrigo, rash, sunburn, neurodermatitis,
psoriasis, lichen planus, anal and vulval pruritus: Dexamethasone 0.01%
cream. Apply as a thin film 2 or 3 times daily.



Topical Eye/Ear

Acute and Chronic Inflammatory conditions of the Eye/Ear : (0.1% usually
incombination with antimicrobials), 1-2 drops 4-6 times daily.

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Action 

   


A synthetic analogue of naturally occuring
glucocorticoid. Action is primarily antiinflammatory with very little
sodium retaining property. Wide spread metabolic effects and
modification of immune responses can occur. Prolonged use of
corticosteroids can cause suppression of the pituitary-adrenal axis
which may result in secondary adrenocortical insufficiency.

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Interaction

 

Barbiturates: Decrease
efficacy of dexametahsone.

Carbamazepine, Primidone: Decrease efficay.

Oral Contraceptives: Increases efficacy of dexamethasone.

Ephedrine: Decrease efficacy of dexamethasone.

Oestrogens: Decrease efficacy of dexamethasone.

Oestrogens: Decrease Efficacy of dexamethasone.

Hydantoins: Decrease efficacy of dexamethasone.

Ketoconazole: Increase efficacy of dexamethasone

Rifampicin: Decreases efficacy. Dexamethsone effects the actions of the
following:

Anticholinesterases: Efficacy antagonised in myasthenia gravis.

Oral anticogulants: Altered response.

Cyclosporine: Increased cyclosporine  efficacy leading to enhaced
toxicity.

Isoniazid: Decreased serum levels of isoniazid.

Salicylates: Decreased serum levels of salicylates.

Diuretics: Increase efficacy may cause increased hypokalaemia Non-depolarising
muslce relaxants- altered response.

Non-depolarising muscle relaxants- altered response.

Theophyllines: Altered response of either agent.

Lab Test: a) increases serum cholesterol levels.

Increases urine glucose levels . Decreases Thyroid l131 uptake;
Decreases T3 serum levels Decrease serum potassium

Brain Scan: Dexamethasone alters result of brain scan due to decreased
uptake of radioactivity material.

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Adverse
Effect & Precaution


 

Hyperglycaemia, glucosuria, fatigue, weakness, delayed wound
healing, cushing’s habitus, hirsutism, fragile skin, telegiectasis.



Precaution: Glaucoma, epilepsy, hypertension, hepatic dysfuction, may
reduce response of pituitary adrenal axis to stess.

Pregnancy: Contraindicated.

Breast Feeding: Use with caution.

Man: Use with caution.






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Brands available in
Market


 




 






























Decdak

Merind
VIAL 4mg/ml 2ml 10.29
Tab. 0.5mg 10 2.23
Decdak ST

Merind
Tab. 0.5mg 10 3.95
Dexamag

Shalaks
Tab. 0.5mg 10 2.57
Dexamethasone

Sanjivani
Inj. 8mg/2ml 2ml 9.58
Inj. 8mg/2ml 20ml 69.00
Dexona

Cadila Healthcare
Tab 0.5mg 10 2.43
Tab. 0.5mg 1000 155.00
Inj. 4mg/ml 2ml 10.29
Inj. 20mg 5ml 44.39
Drops 0.5mg/ml 10ml 6.92
Dexona Forte

Cadila Healthcare
Tab. 0.5mg 10 3.82
Idizone

IDPL
Tab. 0.5mg 10 2.39
Inj. 4mg 2ml 9.58
Millicortenol

Novartis
Cream 0.01% 5g 3.64
Cream 0.01% 15g 10.79
Wymesone

Wyeth Lederle
Tab. 0.5mg 10 2.23
Inj 4mg/ml 2mlx1am 10.37



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Drug Information
        

    
Dexamethasone
 
    

 
Pharmacokinetics
 

Dexamethasone is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Its biological half-life in plasma is about 190 minutes. Binding of dexamethasone to plasma proteins is less than for most other corticosteroids. Up to 65% of a dose is excreted in urine within 24 hours. Clearance in premature neonates is reported to be proportional to gestational age, with a reduced elimination rate in the most premature. It crosses the placenta.

Top 
   

Indication & Dosage
 

im/iv
Shock, Status, Asthamaticus, Anaphylaxis, Allergic Reactions, Toxaemia : Initial dose 0.5-20mg. Repeated as required. Total daily dose not to exceed 80mg even in severe conditions. Children: 200-500micrograms/kg daily.
Oral
Allergic reactions, Asthama, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Sink conditions, Lupus Erythematosis and other steroid responsive conditions:3-6mg/day
IV
Cerebral Oedema: Initially 10mg IV followed by 4mg every 6 hours IM until symptoms subside. Response seen usually in 12-24 hrs. Dosage may b reduced after 2-4 days. Drug may be discontinued gradually over 5-7 days.In recurrent or inoperable brain tumors:2mg 2 or 3 times daily IM

Topical Skin
Various Types of Eczemas including infantile Eczema, Dermatitis including otitis externa, intertrigo, rash, sunburn, neurodermatitis, psoriasis, lichen planus, anal and vulval pruritus: Dexamethasone 0.01% cream. Apply as a thin film 2 or 3 times daily.

Topical Eye/Ear
Acute and Chronic Inflammatory conditions of the Eye/Ear : (0.1% usually incombination with antimicrobials), 1-2 drops 4-6 times daily.

Top  
   

Action 
   

A synthetic analogue of naturally occuring glucocorticoid. Action is primarily antiinflammatory with very little sodium retaining property. Wide spread metabolic effects and modification of immune responses can occur. Prolonged use of corticosteroids can cause suppression of the pituitary-adrenal axis which may result in secondary adrenocortical insufficiency.

Top 
   

Interaction
 
Barbiturates: Decrease efficacy of dexametahsone.
Carbamazepine, Primidone: Decrease efficay.
Oral Contraceptives: Increases efficacy of dexamethasone.
Ephedrine: Decrease efficacy of dexamethasone.
Oestrogens: Decrease efficacy of dexamethasone.
Oestrogens: Decrease Efficacy of dexamethasone.
Hydantoins: Decrease efficacy of dexamethasone.
Ketoconazole: Increase efficacy of dexamethasone
Rifampicin: Decreases efficacy. Dexamethsone effects the actions of the following:
Anticholinesterases: Efficacy antagonised in myasthenia gravis.
Oral anticogulants: Altered response.
Cyclosporine: Increased cyclosporine  efficacy leading to enhaced toxicity.
Isoniazid: Decreased serum levels of isoniazid.
Salicylates: Decreased serum levels of salicylates.
Diuretics: Increase efficacy may cause increased hypokalaemia Non-depolarising muslce relaxants- altered response.
Non-depolarising muscle relaxants- altered response.
Theophyllines: Altered response of either agent.
Lab Test: a) increases serum cholesterol levels.
Increases urine glucose levels . Decreases Thyroid l131 uptake; Decreases T3 serum levels Decrease serum potassium
Brain Scan: Dexamethasone alters result of brain scan due to decreased uptake of radioactivity material.

Top  
  

Adverse Effect & Precaution
 
Hyperglycaemia, glucosuria, fatigue, weakness, delayed wound healing, cushing’s habitus, hirsutism, fragile skin, telegiectasis.

Precaution: Glaucoma, epilepsy, hypertension, hepatic dysfuction, may reduce response of pituitary adrenal axis to stess.
Pregnancy: Contraindicated.
Breast Feeding: Use with caution.
Man: Use with caution.



 Top 
  

 

Decdak

Merind

VIAL

4mg/ml

2ml

10.29

Tab.

0.5mg

10

2.23

Decdak ST

Merind

Tab.

0.5mg

10

3.95

Dexamag

Shalaks

Tab.

0.5mg

10

2.57

Dexamethasone

Sanjivani

Inj.

8mg/2ml

2ml

9.58

Inj.

8mg/2ml

20ml

69.00

Dexona

Cadila Healthcare

Tab

0.5mg

10

2.43

Tab.

0.5mg

1000

155.00

Inj.

4mg/ml

2ml

10.29

Inj.

20mg

5ml

44.39

Drops

0.5mg/ml

10ml

6.92

Dexona Forte

Cadila Healthcare

Tab.

0.5mg

10

3.82

Idizone

IDPL

Tab.

0.5mg

10

2.39

Inj.

4mg

2ml

9.58

Millicortenol

Novartis

Cream

0.01%

5g

3.64

Cream

0.01%

15g

10.79

Wymesone

Wyeth Lederle

Tab.

0.5mg

10

2.23

Inj

4mg/ml

2mlx1am

10.37

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By |2022-07-20T16:44:43+00:00July 20, 2022|Uncategorized|Comments Off on Dexamethasone

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