Naylor MF, Farmer KC [Univ of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City]
The Case for Sunscreens : A Review of Their Use in Preventing Actinic Damage and Neoplasia
Arch Dermatol 133: 1146-1154, 1997
Sunscreens are used to reduce or prevent ultraviolet [UV] rays from producing skin damage by their effect on DNA. Faulty DNA repair leads to neoplasia. Immunosuppression both local and systemic are other possible effects of UV light. Sunscreens however can produce skin alterations and by blocking sunlight lead to vitamin D deficiency. Their usefulness has been shown in melanoma prevention in Australia as indicated by lowering its incidence and mortality. Cutaneous cancer prone races and individuals should be thus protected. 2-Ethylhexyl p-methoxycinnamate has been mentioned as one of the sunscreens.
B, Placzek M, Przybilla B [
Dermatologische Klinik und
Poliklinik der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat
Protective Effect against Sunburn of Combined Systemic Ascorbic Acid [Vitamin C] and d-a-Tocopherol [Vitamin E]
J Am Acad Dermatol 38: 45-48, 1998
Antioxidants administered to reduce damage by free radical oxygen species is described. 20 normal white subjects including 4 women were given a minimal erythema producing dose of UVB light for 8 days [Age 23-46 years]. 12 areas of the lower back were thus studied. Using a double-blind method, either a placebo or 2000 mgm of vitamin C and 1000 IU of vitamin E were given orally during the study period of eight days.
The minimal erythema producing dose of UVB increased in the treated group from 80 to 96.5 mJ/cm2. In the controls reduction from 80-68.5 mJ/cm2 was observed. This fall is described as a priming effect.
These observations suggest that these vitamin supplements should be used to improve the effects of sunscreens rather as replacements.
– Contact and Photocontact Dermatitis
Schauder S, Ippen H [ Univ of Gottingen, Germany]
Contact and Photocontact Sensitivity to Sunscreens: Review of a 15-Year Experience and of the Literature
Contact Dermatitis 37 : 221-232, 1997
Sunscreens contain UV absorbers, fragrances, emollients, and preservatives. Dermatitic expression may occur to any of these.
Over a 15 year period ending 1996, 402 consecutive individuals were subjected to patch tests and photopatch tests upon a suspicion of photosensitivity. Before this minimum erythema doses of UV-A and UV-B were established.
175 subjects exhibited either type of reaction and in 80 patients including 28 men between 11-80 years the reaction was confirmed. Of the 175 reactors 102 were induced by UV-A absorbers [ showing greater reactivity] and 73 due to UV-B [milder reacting group] in the splitting below [a] indicates an allergic reaction and [pa] photo allergic phenomena. Dibenzoylmethanes revealed 30[a] and 32 [pa], benzophenones 3[a] and 9[pa], cinnamates 3[a] and 4[pa], terephthalylidene 1[pa], aminobenbenzoates 3[a] and 4 [pa], methylbenzylidene camphor 32 [a] and 5 [pa], and phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid 1[a] and 7 [pa]. Reactions; fragrance allergies [ 47 patients] revealed 178 [a] and 14 [pa] responses.
Reactions to sunscreens can be to active ingredients, fragrances and Lanolin.