P Ruggenenti, for the “Gruppo Italiano di Studi Epidemiologic in Nefrologia” (GISEN) (Mario Negri Inst, Italy; Azienda Ospedaliera, Bergamo, Italy) Urinary Protein Excretion Rate Is the Best Independent Predictor of ESRF in Non-diabetic Proteinuric Chronic Nephropathies
Kidney Int 53: 1209-1219, 1998
The best independent predictor of disease progression and end-stage renal failure in chronic nephropathies is urinary protein excretion rate.
Several factors have been implicated in the progression of chronic renal disease. These included proteinuria, hypertension, black race, diagnosis of polycystic kidney disease, serum transferrin levels, and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
ES Ginsburg, B Walsh, L Greenberg, et al [ Harvard Med School, Boston ]
Effects of Estrogen Replacement Therapy on the Lipoprotein Profile in Postmenopausal Women with ESRD.
kidney Int 54 : 1344-1350, 1998
Standard dosages of estrogen increase HDL cholesterol to a level expected to improve the cardiovascular risk profile of postmenopausal women. Further research is needed to determine whether estrogen replacement reduces the incidences or severity of cardiovascular disease in ESRD patients to a degree considered normal