Speciality
Spotlight

       




 


Medicine


   

 




Malaria

   

  • Ashley Croft

      

    EXTRACTS FROM – CLINICAL EVIDENCE – : MALARIA :
    PREVENTION IN TRAVELLERS

     

    Interventions

     

    Beneficial :

     

    Insecticide treated nets

     

    Likely to be beneficial :

     

    Air conditioning and electric fans

     

    Mosquito coils and vaporising mats

     

    Smoke

     

    Insecticide treated clothing

     

    Protective clothing

     

    Topical insect repellents

     

    Doxycycline in adults

     

    Mefloquine

     

    Antimalaria drugs for airline pilots

     

    Unknown effectiveness:

     

    Aerosol insecticides

     

    Biological control measures

     

    Insect buzzers and electrocuters

     

    Chloroquine

     

    Chloroquine plus proguanil

     

    Atovaquone plus proguanil

     

    Pyrimethamine plus dapsone

     

    Vaccines

     

    Antimalaria interventions in pregnant women

     

    Likely to be ineffective or harmful:

     

    Amodiaquine

     

    Sulfadoxine plus pyrimethamine

     

    Insect
    repellants containing diethyltoluamide or
    doxycycline in children.

       

  • David
    J Roberts, Arnab Pain, et al (Nuffield Department of
    Clinical Medicine and the National Blood Centre,John
    Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford.

    Autoagglutination
    of malaria-infected red blood cells and malaria
    severity.

    The
    Lancet 2000; April 22; 355: p.1427-1428

     

    Red
    blood cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum can
    adhere to each other and so form large
    autoagglutinates. This
    phenotype is common in field isolates and is
    strongly associated with severe malaria.

         

  • Editorial

    Shete
    M (Department of Medicine, L.T.M.G. Hospital, Sion
    and P.D. Hinduja National Hospital and Research Centre,Mahim, Mumbai.

    Severe
    Malaria: is P.vivax also the culprit ?

    The
    Indian Practitioner; Nov.2000, 53(11), 715-716.

      

    Cerebral malaria is one of the dreaded
    complications of P.falciparum malaria.
    Now it is being claimed that it could also be
    secondary to P.vivax infection.
    However careful search is necessary in ruling
    out co-existing P.falciparum infection before
    labelling it as P.vivax related cerebral malaria.

        

  • Madhavan
    K T, Jajoo UN, Bhalla A (Department of Medicine,
    MGIMS, Sevagram Wardha)

    Severe
    and Complicated Malaria due to Plasmodium Vivax
    Species.

    The
    Indian Practitioner, Nov.2000; 53(11), p.719-720.

      

    During a 3-year period, cases with malaria were
    studied at Sevagram Wardha.
    72 patients with severe and complicated
    malaria were studied.  In 8 patients, infection was caused by Plasmodium Vivax.
    Search revealed that there was no associated
    co-infection with P.falciparum.
    One of the patients with severe malaria due
    to P.vivax infection died.

        

  • Lell
    Bertrand, Faucher Jean-Francois, et al.


    Malaria
    chemoprophylaxis with tafenoquine: a randomised
    study.

        

    Background : Tafenoquine is an analogue of primaquine with
    an improved therapeutic and safety profile. It has a long half-life and activity against liver-stage malaria
    parasites, so may be useful for chemoprophylaxis.

         

  • F
    Nosten, M van Vugt, et al (Department of Infectious
    Diseases, Tropical Medicine and AIDS, Amsterdam,
    Netherlands)

    Effects
    of artesunate-mefloquine
    combination on incidence
    of Plasmodium falciparum malaria
    and mefloquine
    resistance
    in Western Thailand: a prospective study.

    Lancet,
    vol.356, July 22, 2000, p. 297-302.

     

    Morbidity
    and mortality from plasmodium
    falciparum malaria is increasing in tropical areas. This increase results partly from the spread of drug resistance.

     

    Authors
    have assessed incidence of plasmodium
    falciparum malaria and the in-vivo responses to
    mefloquine treatment over 13 years in 2 camps on
    northwest Thailand. During
    this time, standard mefloquine dose was first
    increased, and then combined artesunate and
    mefloquine was introduced as first-line treatment
    for uncomplicated plasmodium
    falciparum malaria.

     

    In
    this area of Thailand, early diagnosis and treatment
    with combined artesunate and mefloquine has reduced
    the incidence of plasmodium falciparum malaria and
    halted progression of mefloquine resistance.
    Authors recommend that antimalarial drugs
    should be combined with artemisinin or a derivative
    to protect them against resistance.

          

 



 

           

Speciality Spotlight

       

 
Medicine
   

 

Malaria
   

  • Ashley Croft
      
    EXTRACTS FROM – CLINICAL EVIDENCE – : MALARIA : PREVENTION IN TRAVELLERS
     
    Interventions
     
    Beneficial :
     
    Insecticide treated nets
     
    Likely to be beneficial :
     
    Air conditioning and electric fans
     
    Mosquito coils and vaporising mats
     
    Smoke
     
    Insecticide treated clothing
     
    Protective clothing
     
    Topical insect repellents
     
    Doxycycline in adults
     
    Mefloquine
     
    Antimalaria drugs for airline pilots
     
    Unknown effectiveness:
     
    Aerosol insecticides
     
    Biological control measures
     
    Insect buzzers and electrocuters
     
    Chloroquine
     
    Chloroquine plus proguanil
     
    Atovaquone plus proguanil
     
    Pyrimethamine plus dapsone
     
    Vaccines
     
    Antimalaria interventions in pregnant women
     
    Likely to be ineffective or harmful:
     
    Amodiaquine
     
    Sulfadoxine plus pyrimethamine
     
    Insect repellants containing diethyltoluamide or doxycycline in children.
       

  • David J Roberts, Arnab Pain, et al (Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine and the National Blood Centre,John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford.
    Autoagglutination of malaria-infected red blood cells and malaria severity.
    The Lancet 2000; April 22; 355: p.1427-1428
     
    Red blood cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum can adhere to each other and so form large autoagglutinates. This phenotype is common in field isolates and is strongly associated with severe malaria.
         

  • Editorial
    Shete M (Department of Medicine, L.T.M.G. Hospital, Sion and P.D. Hinduja National Hospital and Research Centre,Mahim, Mumbai.
    Severe Malaria: is P.vivax also the culprit ?
    The Indian Practitioner; Nov.2000, 53(11), 715-716.
      
    Cerebral malaria is one of the dreaded complications of P.falciparum malaria. Now it is being claimed that it could also be secondary to P.vivax infection. However careful search is necessary in ruling out co-existing P.falciparum infection before labelling it as P.vivax related cerebral malaria.
        

  • Madhavan K T, Jajoo UN, Bhalla A (Department of Medicine, MGIMS, Sevagram Wardha)
    Severe and Complicated Malaria due to Plasmodium Vivax Species.
    The Indian Practitioner, Nov.2000; 53(11), p.719-720.
      
    During a 3-year period, cases with malaria were studied at Sevagram Wardha. 72 patients with severe and complicated malaria were studied.  In 8 patients, infection was caused by Plasmodium Vivax. Search revealed that there was no associated co-infection with P.falciparum. One of the patients with severe malaria due to P.vivax infection died.
        

  • Lell Bertrand, Faucher Jean-Francois, et al.
    Malaria chemoprophylaxis with tafenoquine: a randomised study.
        
    Background : Tafenoquine is an analogue of primaquine with an improved therapeutic and safety profile. It has a long half-life and activity against liver-stage malaria parasites, so may be useful for chemoprophylaxis.
         

  • F Nosten, M van Vugt, et al (Department of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine and AIDS, Amsterdam, Netherlands)
    Effects of artesunate-mefloquine combination on incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and mefloquine resistance in Western Thailand: a prospective study.
    Lancet, vol.356, July 22, 2000, p. 297-302.
     
    Morbidity and mortality from plasmodium falciparum malaria is increasing in tropical areas. This increase results partly from the spread of drug resistance.
     
    Authors have assessed incidence of plasmodium falciparum malaria and the in-vivo responses to mefloquine treatment over 13 years in 2 camps on northwest Thailand. During this time, standard mefloquine dose was first increased, and then combined artesunate and mefloquine was introduced as first-line treatment for uncomplicated plasmodium falciparum malaria.
     
    In this area of Thailand, early diagnosis and treatment with combined artesunate and mefloquine has reduced the incidence of plasmodium falciparum malaria and halted progression of mefloquine resistance. Authors recommend that antimalarial drugs should be combined with artemisinin or a derivative to protect them against resistance.
          

 

 

By |2022-07-20T16:42:00+00:00July 20, 2022|Uncategorized|Comments Off on Malaria

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