Nutrition and Bilirubin
Breast-feeding and Cognitive Development: A Meta-analysis
Anderson JW, Johnstone BM, Remley DT (Vet Affairs Med Ctr; Univ of Kentucky, Lexington; Eli Lilly and company, Indianapolis; Ind; et al)
Am J Clin Nutr 70: 525- 535, 1999
This is a meta- analysis of 11 studies on this topic. It revealed that significantly greater levels of cognitive function occurred in breast-fed than in formula fed children at 6 to 23 months of age. These differences were stable at successive ages. The differences were greater in low- birth weight infants than in normal- weight infants. The cognitive developmental benefits increased with duration.
Feeding Strategies for Premature Infants: Beneficial Outcomes of Feeding Fortified Human Milk Versus Preterm formula
Schanler RJ, Shulman RJ, Lau C ( Baylor College of Medicine, Houstan)
Pediatrics 103: 1150- 1157, 1999
Sixty two premature infants were fed more than 50 mL/ kg/day of fortified human milk (FHM), and 46 were fed preterm formula (PF). It was observed that infants given FHM were discharged from hospital earlier, despite their significantly slower rates of weight gain. Also these infants had a lower incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and late onset sepsis.
Thus unique properties of human milk appear to promote improved host defense and gastrointestinal function compared with formula feeding which outweighs the slower growth rate of preterm infants given FHM.