A Three-Day Course of Dexamethasone Therapy to Prevent Chronic Lung Disease in Ventilation Neonates: A Randomized Trial
Garland JS, Alex CP, Pauly TH, et al (St. Josephs Hosp, Milwaukee, Wis; St. Marys Hosp, Milwaukee; Univ of Kentucky, Lexington; et al)
Pediatrics 104: 91-99, 1999
This was a randomized placebo controlled study of 241 neonates, who were assigned to a placebo group (118 neonates), and a dexamethasone group (123 neonates) within 24 to 48 hours of birth. These neonates weighed between 500 to 1500 G at birth, had received surfactant therapy and were at risk for death by chronic lung disease (CLD).
A three-day course of dexamethasone reduced the risk of CLD and also decreased the need for later dexamethasone therapy for these neonates. However there could be an increased risk of intestinal perforation in these neonates receiving early dexamethasone therapy.
Vitamin A Supplementation for Extremely – Low – Birth Weight Infants
Tyson JE, for the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network (Univ of Texas, Dallas; et al)
N Engl J Med 340 : 1962-1968, 1999
Extremely – low – birth – weight infants are at risk for chronic lung disease and sepsis. Administration of vitamin A 5000 IU intramuscularly 3 times a week for 4 weeks decreased biochemical evidence of vitamin A deficiency and slightly reduced the risk of chronic lung disease.
Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient in the regeneration of epithelial tissue and also essential for septation of the lung and the differentiation of alveoli.