Stein JP, Esrig D, Freeman JA, et al [Univ of Southern California, Los Angeles, Univ of North California, Los Angeles; Univ of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Univ of San Francisco
Prospective Pathologic Analysis of female Cystectomy Soecimens : Risk Factors, for Orthotopic Diversion in Women
Urology 51: 951-955, 1998
Despite bladders neck tumor involvement, a number of women undergoing cystectomy for bladder cancer have a normal urethra and may benefit from orthotopic diversion. Intraoperative frozen-section analysis of the distal surgical margin is an accurate, reliable indicator of proximal urethral involvement and can determine which patients undergo orthotopic diversion.
In the study, no patient with a normal bladder neck at frozen-section demonstrated tumor involvement of the urethra at follow-up.