Speciality
Spotlight

 




 

Otolaryngology


 

    

  




Genetics

    

  • Koch WM, Lango M, Sewell D, et al (Johns Hopkins Med Institutions, Baltimore, MD)

    Head and Neck Cancer in Nonsmokers: A Distinct Clinical and Molecular Entity.

    Laryngoscope 109: 1544-1551, 1999

        

    Several target genes have been identified for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), including p53, p15, RB, and cyclin D1. The molecular evidence for the location of tumour suppressor genes (still undiscovered) is provided by loss of heterozygosity (LOH).

        

    The genetic makeup of nonsmokers may provide valuable information of tumorigenesis. Molecular patterns were studied in smokers and nonsmokers. 

       

    All 305 patients with smokers, nonsmoker and previous smokers were studied.

        

    The molecular pattern was distinct in two groups, smokers were more likely to have tumours with p53 mutation, LOH at chromosome 3p, 4q, and 11q13, and a higher overall percentage of microsatellite alterations. The rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was barely higher in tumours of nonsmokers.

        
  • Xie X, Boysen M, Clausen OPF, et al (Natl Hosp, Oslo, Norway; Univ of Oslo, Norway)

    Prognostic Value of Ley and H Antigens in Oral Tongue Carcinomas

    Laryngoscope 109: 1474-1480, 1999

        

    Eight randomly selected T1-T4 oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma were studied.

         

    Expression of H Antigens and Ley, particularly their combination with proliferative or apoptotic markers, has prognostic value in oral tongue carcinoma.

        
  • Bjork-Eriksson T, West CML, et al (Sahlgrenska Univ, Gothenburg, Sweden; Univ of Gothenburg, Sweden; Christie (CRC) Research Centre,Machester, England)

    The Lack of Correlation Between Proliferation (Ki-67, PCNA, LI, Tpot), p53 Expression and Radiosensitivity for Head and Neck Cancers.

    Br J Cancer 80: 1400-1404, 1999

        


    The relationship between SF2,various proliferation parameters (Ki-67,PCNA, LI, Tpot) and p53 expression was examined in 77 patients with head and neck cancers.

         

    The longstanding assumption that rapidly proliferating cancer pathology is radiosensitive is not substantiated. These findings suggest that multiple measurements of radiobiological parameters may have to be conducted with head and neck cancer patients to determine radiosensitivity.

        

    Editor -R.A. Otto comment’s: If this could be achieved, tailored treatment regimens, improved tumour control, and reduced morbidity – could be achieved. This brings to intrinsic radiosensitivity and proliferation of cells.

        
  • Clayman GL, Frank DK, Bruso PA, et al (Univ of Texas, Houston)


    Adenovirus-mediated Wild-type p53 Gene Transfer as a Surgical Adjuvant in Advanced Head and Neck Cancers.


    Clin Cancer Res 5: 1715-1722, 1999


         

    With all modern treatments, advanced head and neck survival rate is 50% because of high incidence of locoregional failure. Preclinical studies suggest that gene transfer techniques using recombinant p53 adenovirus (Ad-p53) may provide a new therapeutic approach.

          

    At phase I trial in such patients with locoregional recurrence, this therapy was feasible and tolerable. Fifteen patients were treated with this transfer technique and surgery followed. This treatment had low toxicity.

           

    Editor- R.A. Otto comment’s: Theoretically, the virus should spread, induce genetic changes lethal to tumour cells but spare normal cells.

           
  • Singh B, Kim S-H, Carew JF, et al (Mem Sloan-Kettering Cancer Ctr, New York)

    Genome-Wide Screening for Radiation Response Factors in Head and Neck Cancer

    Laryngoscope 110: 1251-1256, 2000

           

    Introduction : Genetic observations related to radiation response in cell lines derived from head and neck squamous cell carcinomas were examined by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) for genome-wide screening.

           

    Conclusion : The number of aberrations detected by CGH analysis may be predictive of radiation response. A large trial of primary tumors to verify this relationship and identify specific genetic aberrations related to radiation response.

           

    According to R. A. Otto, again molecular biology surfaces as a recurring theme. To identify chromosomal loci associated with radiation response are needed by genome-wide analytic methods. Traditionally cytogenetic techniques involved have limitations because of cell culture difficulties.

           

    However, keeping this in mind that this is very preliminary data, the potential implications can be considerable, as it can be learnt how to predict-prior to treatment-which tumors are radio responsive and-even more importantly-why?

            

 



 

Speciality Spotlight

 

    
  

Genetics
    

  • Koch WM, Lango M, Sewell D, et al (Johns Hopkins Med Institutions, Baltimore, MD)
    Head and Neck Cancer in Nonsmokers: A Distinct Clinical and Molecular Entity.
    Laryngoscope 109: 1544-1551, 1999
        
    Several target genes have been identified for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), including p53, p15, RB, and cyclin D1. The molecular evidence for the location of tumour suppressor genes (still undiscovered) is provided by loss of heterozygosity (LOH).
        
    The genetic makeup of nonsmokers may provide valuable information of tumorigenesis. Molecular patterns were studied in smokers and nonsmokers. 
       
    All 305 patients with smokers, nonsmoker and previous smokers were studied.
        
    The molecular pattern was distinct in two groups, smokers were more likely to have tumours with p53 mutation, LOH at chromosome 3p, 4q, and 11q13, and a higher overall percentage of microsatellite alterations. The rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was barely higher in tumours of nonsmokers.
        
  • Xie X, Boysen M, Clausen OPF, et al (Natl Hosp, Oslo, Norway; Univ of Oslo, Norway)
    Prognostic Value of Ley and H Antigens in Oral Tongue Carcinomas
    Laryngoscope 109: 1474-1480, 1999
        
    Eight randomly selected T1-T4 oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma were studied.
         
    Expression of H Antigens and Ley, particularly their combination with proliferative or apoptotic markers, has prognostic value in oral tongue carcinoma.
        
  • Bjork-Eriksson T, West CML, et al (Sahlgrenska Univ, Gothenburg, Sweden; Univ of Gothenburg, Sweden; Christie (CRC) Research Centre,Machester, England)
    The Lack of Correlation Between Proliferation (Ki-67, PCNA, LI, Tpot), p53 Expression and Radiosensitivity for Head and Neck Cancers.
    Br J Cancer 80: 1400-1404, 1999
        

    The relationship between SF2,various proliferation parameters (Ki-67,PCNA, LI, Tpot) and p53 expression was examined in 77 patients with head and neck cancers.
         
    The longstanding assumption that rapidly proliferating cancer pathology is radiosensitive is not substantiated. These findings suggest that multiple measurements of radiobiological parameters may have to be conducted with head and neck cancer patients to determine radiosensitivity.
        
    Editor -R.A. Otto comment’s: If this could be achieved, tailored treatment regimens, improved tumour control, and reduced morbidity – could be achieved. This brings to intrinsic radiosensitivity and proliferation of cells.
        
  • Clayman GL, Frank DK, Bruso PA, et al (Univ of Texas, Houston)
    Adenovirus-mediated Wild-type p53 Gene Transfer as a Surgical Adjuvant in Advanced Head and Neck Cancers.
    Clin Cancer Res 5: 1715-1722, 1999
         
    With all modern treatments, advanced head and neck survival rate is 50% because of high incidence of locoregional failure. Preclinical studies suggest that gene transfer techniques using recombinant p53 adenovirus (Ad-p53) may provide a new therapeutic approach.
          
    At phase I trial in such patients with locoregional recurrence, this therapy was feasible and tolerable. Fifteen patients were treated with this transfer technique and surgery followed. This treatment had low toxicity.
           
    Editor- R.A. Otto comment’s: Theoretically, the virus should spread, induce genetic changes lethal to tumour cells but spare normal cells.
           
  • Singh B, Kim S-H, Carew JF, et al (Mem Sloan-Kettering Cancer Ctr, New York)
    Genome-Wide Screening for Radiation Response Factors in Head and Neck Cancer
    Laryngoscope 110: 1251-1256, 2000
           
    Introduction : Genetic observations related to radiation response in cell lines derived from head and neck squamous cell carcinomas were examined by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) for genome-wide screening.
           
    Conclusion : The number of aberrations detected by CGH analysis may be predictive of radiation response. A large trial of primary tumors to verify this relationship and identify specific genetic aberrations related to radiation response.
           
    According to R. A. Otto, again molecular biology surfaces as a recurring theme. To identify chromosomal loci associated with radiation response are needed by genome-wide analytic methods. Traditionally cytogenetic techniques involved have limitations because of cell culture difficulties.
           
    However, keeping this in mind that this is very preliminary data, the potential implications can be considerable, as it can be learnt how to predict-prior to treatment-which tumors are radio responsive and-even more importantly-why?
            

 

 

By |2022-07-20T16:43:13+00:00July 20, 2022|Uncategorized|Comments Off on Genetics

About the Author: