Speciality
Spotlight

 




 

Otolaryngology


 

    

  




Nose

   

  • Gruber RP, Grover S (Stanford Univ, Palo Alto, Calif)

    The Anatomic Tip Graft for Nasal Augmentation

    Plast Reconstr Surg 103: 1744-1758, 1999

       


    The anatomic tip, designed to fit the actual surface of the nasal tip, is more reliable and reproducible technique for improving external tip contour. Procedure performed was on 14 patients with follow-up from 10 months to 2.5 years.

           
  • Mendenhall WM, Stringer SP, Cassisi NJ, et al (Univ of Florida, Gainesville)

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasal Vestibule

    Head Neck 21: 385-393, 1999

             


    Sixty patients were evaluated. 56 underwent Radiotherapy alone and 4 patients underwent surgery after RT.

            

    Radiotherapy offers a high cure rate with good cosmesis. T4 extensive tumours have an improveed chance of cure with radiation and surgery, though they have more complications.

         

    The vestibular cancers should not be confused with nasal cavity tumours which are more biological aggressive. Nasal vestibular cancers are more like skin cancer.

         
  • Lee D, Joseph EM, Pontell J, et al (Children’s Hosp of Pittsburgh, Penn; State Univ of New York, Brooklyn)

    Long-term Results of Dermal Grafting for the Repair of Nasal Septal Perforations.

    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 120: 483-486, 1999

      

    Fourteen patients were treated.

         

    Dermal grafts placed between mucoperichondrial flaps are a feasible alternative for closing nasal septal perforations. Bilateral silastic stenting should be used to prevent graft dislodgement. Nine had complete closure, 4 had partial closure.

         
  • Malki D, Quine SM, Pfleiderer AG (The Edith Cavell Hosp, Peterborough, UK)

    Nasal Splints, Revisited.

    J Laryngol Otol 113: 725-727, 1999

       

    Are not useful for preventing adhesions.

          
  • Passali D, Lauriello M, et al (Univ of Siena, Italy; Univ of L’Aquila, Italy)

    Treatment of Hypertrophy of the Inferior Turbinate: Long-term Results in 382 Patients Randomly Assigned to Therapy.

    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 108: 569-575, 1999

         

    Several surgical techniques are used to treat hypertrophied inferior turbinate refractory medical treatment. Three hundred eightytwo patients were treated in groups with electrocautery, cryotherapy, laser cautery, submucosal resection with and without lateral displacement and turbinectomy.

        

    The greatest increases in airflow and nasal respiratory function and lowest risk of longterm complications were observed in group who underwent submucosal resection with lateral displacement of inferior turbinate.

      
  • Ferguson BJ, DiBiase PA, (Univ of Pittsburgh, Pa; Duquesne Univ, Pittsburgh, Pa)

    Quantitative Analysis of Microdebriders Used in Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

    Am J Otolaryngol 20: 294-297, 1999

        

    Seven commercially available microdebriders were assessed in terms of grams aspirated per minute in a standardized model. Their efficiency in aspiration of soft tissue simulating polyps and of firmer tissue simulating turbinates in a laboratory setting.

          

    Significant differences were observed.

        

    This study provides the reader with some objective and impartial data, useful for those who are in market for
    microdebriders.

           
  • Leach J (Univ of Texas, Dallas)

    Interlocking Calvarial Bone Grafts: A Solution for the Short, Depressed Nose

    Laryngoscope 110: 955-960, 2000

          

    The skeletal support of the nose may be destroyed by congenital causes, trauma or tumors. It causes the result in collapse of the nasal dorsum, loss of projection and upward rotation of the nasal tip causing functional and aesthetic problem.

         

    A technique with the use of interlocking, calvarial bone grafts to correct severe collapse of the nose is described.

          

    20 patients were operated over a 6-year period. Graft displaced in 2 patients and 2 patients were lost to follow-up. 16 patients were followed-up for 6 weeks to 4.5 years. There was minimal evidence
    of bone graft resorption.

         

    This technique is excellent for predictable long-term results in significant cure of nasal obstruction.

         
  • Lee SH, Lim HH, Lee HM, et al (Korea Univ, Seoul)

    Olfactory Mucosal Findings in Patients With Persistent Anosmia After Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 109: 720-725, 2000

             

    Patients with chronic sinusitis commonly experience disturbances in their sense of smell. It is believed that this is because of obstructed airflow to the olfactory area. However some patients continue to have anosmia even after treatment of sinusitis with medical therapy or endoscopic sinus surgery.

            

    39 anosmic patients with chronic polypoid sinusitis underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. Follow-up study by subjective, objective assessment of anosmia. Biopsy was done for the olfactory mucosa region in 15 patients with persistence anosmia and 6 patients with normosmia.

            

    Findings: 27% of specimens from anosmic patients as against 61% from normosmic patients showed olfactory epithelium. The anosmic patients olfactory epithelium showed dramatically reduced number of olfactory receptor cells and a loss of the normal orderly arrangement of cells.

           

    It was concluded that degeneration of the olfactory epithelium could occur in chronic sinusitis and that is the cause of persistent anosmia following endoscopic sinus surgery.

           
  • Baudoin T, Kalogjera L, Hat J (Univ Hosp “Sestre Milosrdnice,” Zagreb, Croatia) 

    Capsaicin Significantly Reduces Sinonasal Polyps 

    Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 120: 307-311, 2000

           

    Previous studies have shown that topical application of capsaicin topically to nose reduces symptoms of vasomotor rhinitis. An experience of its use in massive sinonasal polyps is reported.

           

    The study was conducted in 9 patients. The patients received 5 days of topical treatment. The patients reported significant symptom scores.

            

    Studies of the effects of capsaicin on neuropeptides and neurokinin activity in nasal polyps may provide useful insights into the pathogenesis of this condition.

           

    According to R. A. Otto traditionally it is associated with allergy. This leads to consideration whether it is neurogenic inflammation in sinus polyposis that is important.

            
  • Shin S-H, Park J-Y, Jeon C-H, et al (Kyungpook Natl Univ, Taegu, Korea) 

    Quantitative Analysis of Eotaxin and RANTES Messenger RNA in Nasal Polyps: Association of Tissue and Nasal Eosinophils 

    Laryngoscope 110: 1353-1357, 2000

            

    Histologic analysis of polyps shows infiltration with various inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils. The activation of eosinophils by chemokines eotaxin and RANTES, expressed was studied in nasal polyps. The polyps were in 917 allergic and 30 nonallergic cases.

            

    The allergic nasal polyps showed 11.4 fold increase in eotaxin mRNA, compared with normal inferior turbinate. For nonallergic polyps, the eotaxin mRNA level was increased by 6.4-fold. Expression of eotaxin mRNA but not RANTES mRNA was significantly correlated with tissue eosinophils and nasal mRNA expression. Eotaxin may play significant role in the development of polyps.

             

    According to R. A. Otto, this article serves to amplify on RANTES and eotaxin, which activate eosinophils
    – a common cellular denominator associated with nasal polyposis and thus may play a more important role in polyp formation.

           

 



 

Speciality Spotlight

 

    
  

Nose
   

  • Gruber RP, Grover S (Stanford Univ, Palo Alto, Calif)
    The Anatomic Tip Graft for Nasal Augmentation
    Plast Reconstr Surg 103: 1744-1758, 1999
       
    The anatomic tip, designed to fit the actual surface of the nasal tip, is more reliable and reproducible technique for improving external tip contour. Procedure performed was on 14 patients with follow-up from 10 months to 2.5 years.
           
  • Mendenhall WM, Stringer SP, Cassisi NJ, et al (Univ of Florida, Gainesville)
    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasal Vestibule
    Head Neck 21: 385-393, 1999
             

    Sixty patients were evaluated. 56 underwent Radiotherapy alone and 4 patients underwent surgery after RT.
            
    Radiotherapy offers a high cure rate with good cosmesis. T4 extensive tumours have an improveed chance of cure with radiation and surgery, though they have more complications.
         
    The vestibular cancers should not be confused with nasal cavity tumours which are more biological aggressive. Nasal vestibular cancers are more like skin cancer.
         
  • Lee D, Joseph EM, Pontell J, et al (Children’s Hosp of Pittsburgh, Penn; State Univ of New York, Brooklyn)
    Long-term Results of Dermal Grafting for the Repair of Nasal Septal Perforations.
    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 120: 483-486, 1999
      
    Fourteen patients were treated.
         
    Dermal grafts placed between mucoperichondrial flaps are a feasible alternative for closing nasal septal perforations. Bilateral silastic stenting should be used to prevent graft dislodgement. Nine had complete closure, 4 had partial closure.
         
  • Malki D, Quine SM, Pfleiderer AG (The Edith Cavell Hosp, Peterborough, UK)
    Nasal Splints, Revisited.
    J Laryngol Otol 113: 725-727, 1999
       
    Are not useful for preventing adhesions.
          
  • Passali D, Lauriello M, et al (Univ of Siena, Italy; Univ of L’Aquila, Italy)
    Treatment of Hypertrophy of the Inferior Turbinate: Long-term Results in 382 Patients Randomly Assigned to Therapy.
    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 108: 569-575, 1999
         
    Several surgical techniques are used to treat hypertrophied inferior turbinate refractory medical treatment. Three hundred eightytwo patients were treated in groups with electrocautery, cryotherapy, laser cautery, submucosal resection with and without lateral displacement and turbinectomy.
        
    The greatest increases in airflow and nasal respiratory function and lowest risk of longterm complications were observed in group who underwent submucosal resection with lateral displacement of inferior turbinate.
      
  • Ferguson BJ, DiBiase PA, (Univ of Pittsburgh, Pa; Duquesne Univ, Pittsburgh, Pa)
    Quantitative Analysis of Microdebriders Used in Endoscopic Sinus Surgery
    Am J Otolaryngol 20: 294-297, 1999
        
    Seven commercially available microdebriders were assessed in terms of grams aspirated per minute in a standardized model. Their efficiency in aspiration of soft tissue simulating polyps and of firmer tissue simulating turbinates in a laboratory setting.
          
    Significant differences were observed.
        
    This study provides the reader with some objective and impartial data, useful for those who are in market for microdebriders.
           
  • Leach J (Univ of Texas, Dallas)
    Interlocking Calvarial Bone Grafts: A Solution for the Short, Depressed Nose
    Laryngoscope 110: 955-960, 2000
          
    The skeletal support of the nose may be destroyed by congenital causes, trauma or tumors. It causes the result in collapse of the nasal dorsum, loss of projection and upward rotation of the nasal tip causing functional and aesthetic problem.
         
    A technique with the use of interlocking, calvarial bone grafts to correct severe collapse of the nose is described.
          
    20 patients were operated over a 6-year period. Graft displaced in 2 patients and 2 patients were lost to follow-up. 16 patients were followed-up for 6 weeks to 4.5 years. There was minimal evidence of bone graft resorption.
         
    This technique is excellent for predictable long-term results in significant cure of nasal obstruction.
         
  • Lee SH, Lim HH, Lee HM, et al (Korea Univ, Seoul)
    Olfactory Mucosal Findings in Patients With Persistent Anosmia After Endoscopic Sinus Surgery
    Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 109: 720-725, 2000
             
    Patients with chronic sinusitis commonly experience disturbances in their sense of smell. It is believed that this is because of obstructed airflow to the olfactory area. However some patients continue to have anosmia even after treatment of sinusitis with medical therapy or endoscopic sinus surgery.
            
    39 anosmic patients with chronic polypoid sinusitis underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. Follow-up study by subjective, objective assessment of anosmia. Biopsy was done for the olfactory mucosa region in 15 patients with persistence anosmia and 6 patients with normosmia.
            
    Findings: 27% of specimens from anosmic patients as against 61% from normosmic patients showed olfactory epithelium. The anosmic patients olfactory epithelium showed dramatically reduced number of olfactory receptor cells and a loss of the normal orderly arrangement of cells.
           
    It was concluded that degeneration of the olfactory epithelium could occur in chronic sinusitis and that is the cause of persistent anosmia following endoscopic sinus surgery.
           
  • Baudoin T, Kalogjera L, Hat J (Univ Hosp “Sestre Milosrdnice,” Zagreb, Croatia) 
    Capsaicin Significantly Reduces Sinonasal Polyps 
    Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 120: 307-311, 2000
           
    Previous studies have shown that topical application of capsaicin topically to nose reduces symptoms of vasomotor rhinitis. An experience of its use in massive sinonasal polyps is reported.
           
    The study was conducted in 9 patients. The patients received 5 days of topical treatment. The patients reported significant symptom scores.
            
    Studies of the effects of capsaicin on neuropeptides and neurokinin activity in nasal polyps may provide useful insights into the pathogenesis of this condition.
           
    According to R. A. Otto traditionally it is associated with allergy. This leads to consideration whether it is neurogenic inflammation in sinus polyposis that is important.
            
  • Shin S-H, Park J-Y, Jeon C-H, et al (Kyungpook Natl Univ, Taegu, Korea) 
    Quantitative Analysis of Eotaxin and RANTES Messenger RNA in Nasal Polyps: Association of Tissue and Nasal Eosinophils 
    Laryngoscope 110: 1353-1357, 2000
            
    Histologic analysis of polyps shows infiltration with various inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils. The activation of eosinophils by chemokines eotaxin and RANTES, expressed was studied in nasal polyps. The polyps were in 917 allergic and 30 nonallergic cases.
            
    The allergic nasal polyps showed 11.4 fold increase in eotaxin mRNA, compared with normal inferior turbinate. For nonallergic polyps, the eotaxin mRNA level was increased by 6.4-fold. Expression of eotaxin mRNA but not RANTES mRNA was significantly correlated with tissue eosinophils and nasal mRNA expression. Eotaxin may play significant role in the development of polyps.
             
    According to R. A. Otto, this article serves to amplify on RANTES and eotaxin, which activate eosinophils – a common cellular denominator associated with nasal polyposis and thus may play a more important role in polyp formation.
           

 

 

By |2022-07-20T16:43:12+00:00July 20, 2022|Uncategorized|Comments Off on Nose

About the Author: