Speciality
Spotlight

 




 

Urology


 

 





Infection

    

  • R. Thilagarajah, R.O’N. Witherow and M.M. Walker [Urology Unit, St. Mary’s Hospital, London, UK]

    Oral Cimetidine gives Effective Symptom Relief in Painful Bladder Disease : A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial

    BJU International, volume 87, Number 1, January 2001, Pg.Nos. 207-212

          



    Introduction
    : Painful bladder disease [PBD] encompasses a spectrum of conditions that include a symptom complex of suprapubic pain, frequency, dysuria, and nocturia in the absence of detectable urine infection. Ulcerative and nonulcerative interstitial cystitis (IC), painful bladder syndrome [PBS], a bacterial cystitis and the urethral syndrome are all contained within this wide ranging term as defined by international guidelines.

         



    Patients and Methods
    : The study comprised 36 patients with PBD enrolled in a double blind clinical study with two treatment arms i.e. oral cimetidine or placebo for 3 months trial. 

         



    Results
    : Of the 36 patients recruited, 34 completed the study. Those receiving cimetidine had a significant improvement in symptoms; with mean symptom scores decreasing from 19 to 11.

          


    Suprapubic pain and nocturia decreased markedly. However, histologically the bladder mucosa showed no qualitative change in the glycosaminoglycan layer or basement membrane or in muscle collagen deposition, in either group. The T. cell infiltrate was marginally reduced in the cimetidine group and increased in the placebo group. Angiogenesis remained relatively unchanged. The incidence of mast cells and B cells was sporadic in both groups.

          



    Conclusion
    : Oral cimetidine is very effective in relieving symptoms in patients with PBD but there is no apparent histological change in the bladder mucosa after treatment.

          
  • D. Cahill, A. Dhanji, M. Williams, C. Smith and B. Montgomery [ Departments of Urology, Microbiology and Histopathology, Frimley Park Hospital, Surrey, UK]

    Genitourinary Tuberculosis in Middle England : Look for It or Miss It !

    BJU International, volume 87, Number 3, February 2001, Pg.Nos. 273-274

        


    The prevalence of tuberculosis may be as high as 400 in 100,000 in some developing countries, as opposed to 5-12 in 100,000 in the UK.; only 20% of these cases occur in the white population. Genitourinary tuberculosis accounts for 14% on non-pulmonary manifestations and therefore 1-1.5 cases per year present to a urologist serving a population of 500,000.

        


    Atypical acute or chronic urological disease should warrant the active exclusion of tuberculosis. The ZN stain is useful on histological sections of genitourinary tissue in confirming the diagnosis when positive, but results are usually negative.

        


    Negative results must never exclude diagnosis. 

         


    Microscopy of early morning urine samples with ZN staining is unrewarding because there is much debris in the urine samples.

         


    The urine must be cultured on Lowenstrin—Jensen slopes for at least 9 weeks. At least 6 EMUs should be requested and more if tuberculosis is clinically or histologically suspected.

         
  • D.J. Campbell, N. Tenis, A. Rosamillia, J.A. Clements and P.L. Dwyers [ St. Vincent Institute of Medical Research, Fitzroy, Prince Henry’s Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Mercy Hospital for Women, East Melbourne, Royal Women’s Hospital, Carlton, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Victoria, and Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

    Urinary Levels of Substance P and Its Metabolites are not Increased in Interstitial Cystitis

    BJU International, volume 87, Number 1, January 2001, Pg.Nos. 35-38

         



    Results
    : Absolute substance P excretion rates were similar in patients with interstitial cystitis and controls.

        



    Conclusion
    : The release of substance P from the bladder wall was not increased in patients with interstitial cystitis.

        
  • Y.H. CHO. S-J Lee, J.Y. Lee S.W. Kim, L.C. Kwon, S.Y. Chung and M.S. Yoon [Department of Urology, Catholic University Medical College and Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea]

    Prophylactic Efficacy of a New Gentamicin Releasing Urethral Catheter in Short-Term Catheterized Rabbits

    BJU International, volume 87, Number 1, January 2001, Pg.Nos. 104-109

        



    Results
    : The gentamicin-releasing catheter reduced the incidence of bacteriuria after both 3 and 5 days of catheterization.

         


    The surfaces of gentamycin releasing catheter were colonized less than those of the control catheter after both 3 and 5 days.

         


    Scanning electron microscopy showed formation of bacterial biofilm throughout the 3-day and 5-day control catheters, but deterioration of the bacterial biofilm was visible on the surface of the gentamicin releasing catheters.

         



    Conclusion
    : the new catheter may be useful for controlling infection with systemic and local safety in patients undergoing short term indwelling urethral catheterization.

         
  • K.
    Bouchelouche, T. Horn, J. Nordling, S. Larsen and T.
    Hald ( Departments of Urology and Pathalogy, herlev
    Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark)

    The Action of Cysteinyl-Leukotrienes on
    Intracellular Calcium Mobilization in Human
    Destrusor Myocytes

    BJU Intl. May 2001 Vol. 87(7) Pg. 690-696

        

    Conclusion : The present study is the first
    to show the presence of specific leukotriene D4
    receptor in human destrusor myocytes. This may have
    potential for the role of leukotriene D4 in patients
    with interstitial cystitis and other functional or
    inflammatory bladder disorders.

          
  • D. E. Bjorling, H. E. Jacobsen, J. R. Blum, A. Shih, M. Beckman, Z.-Y. Wang (Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, and Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA)

    Intravesical Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide stimulates an increase in bladder nerve growth factor

    BJU Intl. May 2001 Vol. 87 (7) Pg. 697-702

        


    Escherichia coli LPS can stimulate increased NGF message and protein in the bladder. The increase in NGF protein preceded the increase in mRNA, suggesting that this increase was not the result of gene transcription.

          


    It is possible that NGF participates in the pathogenesis of pain associated with bacterial cystitis.

              



 

  

Speciality Spotlight

 

 
Urology
 

 

Infection
    

  • R. Thilagarajah, R.O’N. Witherow and M.M. Walker [Urology Unit, St. Mary’s Hospital, London, UK]
    Oral Cimetidine gives Effective Symptom Relief in Painful Bladder Disease : A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial
    BJU International, volume 87, Number 1, January 2001, Pg.Nos. 207-212
          
    Introduction : Painful bladder disease [PBD] encompasses a spectrum of conditions that include a symptom complex of suprapubic pain, frequency, dysuria, and nocturia in the absence of detectable urine infection. Ulcerative and nonulcerative interstitial cystitis (IC), painful bladder syndrome [PBS], a bacterial cystitis and the urethral syndrome are all contained within this wide ranging term as defined by international guidelines.
         
    Patients and Methods : The study comprised 36 patients with PBD enrolled in a double blind clinical study with two treatment arms i.e. oral cimetidine or placebo for 3 months trial. 
         
    Results : Of the 36 patients recruited, 34 completed the study. Those receiving cimetidine had a significant improvement in symptoms; with mean symptom scores decreasing from 19 to 11.
          
    Suprapubic pain and nocturia decreased markedly. However, histologically the bladder mucosa showed no qualitative change in the glycosaminoglycan layer or basement membrane or in muscle collagen deposition, in either group. The T. cell infiltrate was marginally reduced in the cimetidine group and increased in the placebo group. Angiogenesis remained relatively unchanged. The incidence of mast cells and B cells was sporadic in both groups.
          
    Conclusion : Oral cimetidine is very effective in relieving symptoms in patients with PBD but there is no apparent histological change in the bladder mucosa after treatment.
          
  • D. Cahill, A. Dhanji, M. Williams, C. Smith and B. Montgomery [ Departments of Urology, Microbiology and Histopathology, Frimley Park Hospital, Surrey, UK]
    Genitourinary Tuberculosis in Middle England : Look for It or Miss It !
    BJU International, volume 87, Number 3, February 2001, Pg.Nos. 273-274
        
    The prevalence of tuberculosis may be as high as 400 in 100,000 in some developing countries, as opposed to 5-12 in 100,000 in the UK.; only 20% of these cases occur in the white population. Genitourinary tuberculosis accounts for 14% on non-pulmonary manifestations and therefore 1-1.5 cases per year present to a urologist serving a population of 500,000.
        
    Atypical acute or chronic urological disease should warrant the active exclusion of tuberculosis. The ZN stain is useful on histological sections of genitourinary tissue in confirming the diagnosis when positive, but results are usually negative.
        
    Negative results must never exclude diagnosis. 
         
    Microscopy of early morning urine samples with ZN staining is unrewarding because there is much debris in the urine samples.
         
    The urine must be cultured on Lowenstrin—Jensen slopes for at least 9 weeks. At least 6 EMUs should be requested and more if tuberculosis is clinically or histologically suspected.
         
  • D.J. Campbell, N. Tenis, A. Rosamillia, J.A. Clements and P.L. Dwyers [ St. Vincent Institute of Medical Research, Fitzroy, Prince Henry’s Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Mercy Hospital for Women, East Melbourne, Royal Women’s Hospital, Carlton, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Victoria, and Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    Urinary Levels of Substance P and Its Metabolites are not Increased in Interstitial Cystitis
    BJU International, volume 87, Number 1, January 2001, Pg.Nos. 35-38
         
    Results : Absolute substance P excretion rates were similar in patients with interstitial cystitis and controls.
        
    Conclusion : The release of substance P from the bladder wall was not increased in patients with interstitial cystitis.
        
  • Y.H. CHO. S-J Lee, J.Y. Lee S.W. Kim, L.C. Kwon, S.Y. Chung and M.S. Yoon [Department of Urology, Catholic University Medical College and Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea]
    Prophylactic Efficacy of a New Gentamicin Releasing Urethral Catheter in Short-Term Catheterized Rabbits
    BJU International, volume 87, Number 1, January 2001, Pg.Nos. 104-109
        
    Results : The gentamicin-releasing catheter reduced the incidence of bacteriuria after both 3 and 5 days of catheterization.
         
    The surfaces of gentamycin releasing catheter were colonized less than those of the control catheter after both 3 and 5 days.
         
    Scanning electron microscopy showed formation of bacterial biofilm throughout the 3-day and 5-day control catheters, but deterioration of the bacterial biofilm was visible on the surface of the gentamicin releasing catheters.
         
    Conclusion : the new catheter may be useful for controlling infection with systemic and local safety in patients undergoing short term indwelling urethral catheterization.
         
  • K. Bouchelouche, T. Horn, J. Nordling, S. Larsen and T. Hald ( Departments of Urology and Pathalogy, herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark)
    The Action of Cysteinyl-Leukotrienes on Intracellular Calcium Mobilization in Human Destrusor Myocytes
    BJU Intl. May 2001 Vol. 87(7) Pg. 690-696
        
    Conclusion : The present study is the first to show the presence of specific leukotriene D4 receptor in human destrusor myocytes. This may have potential for the role of leukotriene D4 in patients with interstitial cystitis and other functional or inflammatory bladder disorders.
          
  • D. E. Bjorling, H. E. Jacobsen, J. R. Blum, A. Shih, M. Beckman, Z.-Y. Wang (Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, and Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA)
    Intravesical Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide stimulates an increase in bladder nerve growth factor
    BJU Intl. May 2001 Vol. 87 (7) Pg. 697-702
        
    Escherichia coli LPS can stimulate increased NGF message and protein in the bladder. The increase in NGF protein preceded the increase in mRNA, suggesting that this increase was not the result of gene transcription.
          
    It is possible that NGF participates in the pathogenesis of pain associated with bacterial cystitis.
              

 

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