Symptoms
& Disease



 





Anthrax



    

Introduction 
 
Who can be
affected
   Route and progress of the
disease 

   
Organism   
Signs and
Symptoms
  Lab
Diagnosis

Precautions   
Treatment

 

Introduction

Anthrax is a zoonosis a disease of herbivorous animals like sheep, goat and
cattle etc transmissible secondary to man.-A legendary gram positive bacterial
infection believed to have been essentially eliminated , has now returned to the
centre stage due to fear in the minds of people as use of biological war fare by
terrorist group following attack on buildings on world trade centre and Pentagon
in USA on September 11 2001.

 The biological weapons are defined as any infectious agents such as
bacteria virus or their toxin used intentionally to inflict harm on others. They
are cheap easy to make and simple to conceal.. The terrorist who lack money to
spend on high tech killing instrument prefer to use biological weapons.
Anthracis is most effective as a biological weapon when converted into a powder
, which can be inhaled. It is transmitted by the spore  of bacillus
Anthracis, and source of spores is usually  bacilli shed in large numbers
from nose , mouth and anus of animals in terminal stages of infection.

 

Who can be affected:

In man infection is acquired from animals usually through damaged skins or
mucous membranes or more rarely by inhalation of spores into the lungs. Infection
occurs mostly through the skin in persons such as farmers and veterinary
surgeons handling infected animals or among the dock workers , factory workers
and farmers from handling carcases , hides , animal hair , bristles , shaving
brushes , feeding stuffs , bone meal  and other bone products. In the
terminal stages of septicemic animals , the bacteria are present in very large
numbers in faeces , urine ,saliva and these contaminate  the ground and pasture. Contamination
of soil and pastures also result  from the exudates
of dead animals .The bacteria turn to spores after being shed and spores may
remain viable for years  in the soil.

Route and progress of the disease:

Direct inoculation
into the skin , inhalation of spores, insect bites from
infected animal wounds and consumption of contaminated meat are the routes in
human transmission.

95% in human  is cutaneous  anthrax
(skin). The lesion starts as a
papule and then becomes a blister in 24-48 hours and then becomes a pustule with
increasing areas of inflammation, oedema , depending upon the resistance of a person. The
prognosis becomes poor in patients with septicaemia.


5% infection may result from inhalation of spores carried in dust or
filaments of wool from infected animals


Organism


Bacillus Anthracis belongs to the genus Bacillus whose members are large
straight Gram positive rods occurring in chains growing aerobically forming heat
resistant spores. The spores are resistant to chemical disinfectant and heat.
Spores may resist dry heat at 140 for 1 – 3 hours and boiling or steam at 100C
for 5 to 10 mins > how ever autoclaving  at 121 c destroys them in 15
mins


Lab Diagnosis


Films made from the fluid of vesicle stained by Grams method showing bacilli
morphologically like B anthracis is suggestive of anthrax.

2) Cultures from the fluid of vesicles on nutrient
agar. The typical medusa
head colonies are obtained after night incubation , then showing b anthracis 
by Gram staining of films from these
colonies- some spores may be seen in
long  tangled stains of large Gram
positive Bacilli.


3)
Confirmation that the organism is
B.Anthracis  is provided by animal inoculation. When
animal dies  , the
post mortem  appearances  and
bacilli can be demonstrated in heart blood
and spleen in large numbers.


Signs
and Symptoms


1)
Flu like symptoms , starting with common cold
to breathing problems later 2) skin blisters
3)Abdominal pain 4) Dysentery/loose motion


Treatment


If
correctly diagnosed and promptly treated the
infection is curable. While penicillin is
drug of choice in those drug sensitive
patients, ciprofloxacin,tetracycline and
others can be used. The crux is timely
institution of treatment to save the
patient.


Precautions


While
handling material suspected of containing
anthrax spores one should wear protective
gears like mask , goggle , apron and gloves





DO’s

Don’ts

1)
Avail medical advice if u get
symptoms like fever , pain in chest
, difficulty in breathing , pustules
on body , pain in abdomen , loose
motion etc without delay

2)
Precautions are to be taken while
opening the postal envelopes and
ascertain the source of it, if you
get suspicious powder in it , inform
the police station at once and hand
over the envelope to the police if
some powder spills over the body
wash it with soap .

3)Drink
boiled water 

4)
Effective drugs are available
against anthrax .Avail as per
medical advice if necessary.

1)
Do not neglect oneself or bear the
illness if one gets symptoms like
pain in chest , fever , difficulties
in breathing , pustules on body etc

2)
Do not open suspicious postal
envelopes. If you get suspicious
powder in the envelope don’t forget
to switch off the fan or A/C unit

3)
Don’t eat meat from unauthorized
meat shops

4)
Don’t spread panic rumours about
Anthrax

 


 


 

 




 

 

Symptoms & Disease

 

Anthrax

    
Introduction 
  Who can be affected   Route and progress of the disease 

    Organism    Signs and Symptoms  Lab Diagnosis

Precautions    Treatment

 

Introduction

Anthrax is a zoonosis a disease of herbivorous animals like sheep, goat and cattle etc transmissible secondary to man.-A legendary gram positive bacterial infection believed to have been essentially eliminated , has now returned to the centre stage due to fear in the minds of people as use of biological war fare by terrorist group following attack on buildings on world trade centre and Pentagon in USA on September 11 2001.

 The biological weapons are defined as any infectious agents such as bacteria virus or their toxin used intentionally to inflict harm on others. They are cheap easy to make and simple to conceal.. The terrorist who lack money to spend on high tech killing instrument prefer to use biological weapons. Anthracis is most effective as a biological weapon when converted into a powder , which can be inhaled. It is transmitted by the spore  of bacillus Anthracis, and source of spores is usually  bacilli shed in large numbers from nose , mouth and anus of animals in terminal stages of infection.

 

Who can be affected:

In man infection is acquired from animals usually through damaged skins or mucous membranes or more rarely by inhalation of spores into the lungs. Infection occurs mostly through the skin in persons such as farmers and veterinary surgeons handling infected animals or among the dock workers , factory workers and farmers from handling carcases , hides , animal hair , bristles , shaving brushes , feeding stuffs , bone meal  and other bone products. In the terminal stages of septicemic animals , the bacteria are present in very large numbers in faeces , urine ,saliva and these contaminate  the ground and pasture. Contamination of soil and pastures also result  from the exudates of dead animals .The bacteria turn to spores after being shed and spores may remain viable for years  in the soil.

Route and progress of the disease:

Direct inoculation into the skin , inhalation of spores, insect bites from infected animal wounds and consumption of contaminated meat are the routes in human transmission.

95% in human  is cutaneous  anthrax (skin). The lesion starts as a papule and then becomes a blister in 24-48 hours and then becomes a pustule with increasing areas of inflammation, oedema , depending upon the resistance of a person. The prognosis becomes poor in patients with septicaemia.

5% infection may result from inhalation of spores carried in dust or filaments of wool from infected animals

Organism

Bacillus Anthracis belongs to the genus Bacillus whose members are large straight Gram positive rods occurring in chains growing aerobically forming heat resistant spores. The spores are resistant to chemical disinfectant and heat. Spores may resist dry heat at 140 for 1 – 3 hours and boiling or steam at 100C for 5 to 10 mins > how ever autoclaving  at 121 c destroys them in 15 mins

Lab Diagnosis

Films made from the fluid of vesicle stained by Grams method showing bacilli morphologically like B anthracis is suggestive of anthrax.

2) Cultures from the fluid of vesicles on nutrient agar. The typical medusa head colonies are obtained after night incubation , then showing b anthracis  by Gram staining of films from these colonies- some spores may be seen in long  tangled stains of large Gram positive Bacilli.

3) Confirmation that the organism is B.Anthracis  is provided by animal inoculation. When animal dies  , the post mortem  appearances  and bacilli can be demonstrated in heart blood and spleen in large numbers.

Signs and Symptoms

1) Flu like symptoms , starting with common cold to breathing problems later 2) skin blisters 3)Abdominal pain 4) Dysentery/loose motion

Treatment

If correctly diagnosed and promptly treated the infection is curable. While penicillin is drug of choice in those drug sensitive patients, ciprofloxacin,tetracycline and others can be used. The crux is timely institution of treatment to save the patient.

Precautions

While handling material suspected of containing anthrax spores one should wear protective gears like mask , goggle , apron and gloves

DO’s

Don’ts

1) Avail medical advice if u get symptoms like fever , pain in chest , difficulty in breathing , pustules on body , pain in abdomen , loose motion etc without delay

2) Precautions are to be taken while opening the postal envelopes and ascertain the source of it, if you get suspicious powder in it , inform the police station at once and hand over the envelope to the police if some powder spills over the body wash it with soap .

3)Drink boiled water 

4) Effective drugs are available against anthrax .Avail as per medical advice if necessary.

1) Do not neglect oneself or bear the illness if one gets symptoms like pain in chest , fever , difficulties in breathing , pustules on body etc

2) Do not open suspicious postal envelopes. If you get suspicious powder in the envelope don’t forget to switch off the fan or A/C unit

3) Don’t eat meat from unauthorized meat shops

4) Don’t spread panic rumours about Anthrax

 

 

 

 

 

By |2022-07-20T16:44:19+00:00July 20, 2022|Uncategorized|Comments Off on Headache

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