Symptoms
& Disease




 





Dizziness





















   

Patients
use this term to encompass a variety of sensations
like light headedness, faintness, spinning, giddiness, mental confusion, blurred vision or
headache.

  

Dizziness
is Classified into four categories.

1 Faintness

2 Vertigo

3 Miscellenous head sensation

4 Gait disturbances

  

1]
Faintness

Fainting [Syncope] is a loss of consciousness due
to cerebral ischaemia.

   

2]
Vertigo

It is a hallucination of self or environmental
movement. It is a feeling of spinning due to
disturbance in vestibular system.

  

3]
Miscelleneous Head Sensations –

These include hyperventilation syndrome,
hypoglycemia or somatic symptoms of a clinical
depression. These patients will have a normal
neurological examination, or vestibular function
test.

  

4]
Gait Disturbaces

Some individuals with gait disorders complain of
dizziness, despite the absence of vertigo or other
abnormal cephalic sensations. The term
“dizziness” is used to describe
disturbed a mobilty.

e.g: Peripheral neuropathy, Myelopathy, Spasticity,
Parkinsonian rigidity, Cerebellar ataxia.

  

Their
may be mild associated light headedness, with
impaired sensations from the feet, or poor vision.
This is more common in elderly persons who
complain of dizziness only during ambulation. This
is because a decreased position sense [secondary
to neuropathy or myelopathy] and poor vision
create an over reliance on the aging vestibular
apparatus.

   



Light headedness/Fainting/Giddiness



Spinning Sensation



Present

Absent



1. Vestibular
dysfunction


   Nausea, postural unsteadiness

   Gait ataxia, nystagmus

2. Benign positional vertigo

   H/o head trauma

   Vertigo on Head Movement in
lying    

   in lying down position

3. Drug Inducted Vertigo

   Streptomycin, aminoglycosides,
aspiring,

   frusemide

4. Psychogenic Vertigo

   Presence of agoraphobia

   Nystagmus absent

5. New/incorrect glasses

   Correction of glasses



Faintness




Neurological signs





Present Absent



T.I.A

Weakness of one side of
body Aphasia 

Complete recovery within
24 hours

H/o risk factors like high
B.P. smoking, diabetes
1.
Anxiety


Palpitation

Restlessness/panic

Not relieved by 

lying down

No loss of

Consciousness

2. Hypoglycemia

Occurs 2-3 hrs after lunch

Confusion/loss of
conciousness H/o diabetic.

3. Hysteria

No sings of anxiety

No Change in pulse rate

B.P. or colour of
skin      

    

 

   

Vestibular

   

Romberg Test, Gait Test

Caloric Testing, Electrorystagmography [ENG]

 

Treatment

Antihistamines- Meclizine Promethazine

Clinnarizine, Scopolamine

Top

  
     

Benign positional vertigo

   

H/o head trauma

Audiometry and caloric testing within normal
limits

 

Treatment

Specific exercise program of head and neck.

Top

       

Drug
induced Vertigo

    

Stop the drug [e.g. Aspirin, Streptomycin,
Aminoglycoside]

Streptomycin, aminoglycoside.

Top

   

Psychogenic
vertigo

  

No symptoms of vestibular system or CNS
involvement.

 

Treatment

Assurance, Alprazolam

Top 

    

New/Incorrect
Glasses



Correction of Glasses

Top

  

TIA



Absecve
of ear symptoms

Presence of risk factors

e.g. Family History

Smoking

High B.P.

Diabetes

High Blood Cholesterol

Treatment

Stop Smoking

Low fat diet

Treatment of High B.P. and Diabetes

Aspirin

Top

    

Anxiety



Forced hyperventilation for one minute will
reproduce an attack of anxiety. No ear
symptoms. No loss of Consciousness.

Top

   

Hypoglycemia



Glucose tolerance test matching between
exercise and insulin dosage.

Top

   

Hysteria



No anxiety

No change in pulse rate

B.P. or skin colour

Hysteric personality

Treatment

Psychiatric counseling behavioral therapy

Top

 

  





 

Symptoms & Disease

 

Dizziness

   
Patients use this term to encompass a variety of sensations like light headedness, faintness, spinning, giddiness, mental confusion, blurred vision or headache.
  
Dizziness is Classified into four categories.
1 Faintness
2 Vertigo
3 Miscellenous head sensation
4 Gait disturbances
  
1] Faintness
Fainting [Syncope] is a loss of consciousness due to cerebral ischaemia.
   
2] Vertigo
It is a hallucination of self or environmental movement. It is a feeling of spinning due to disturbance in vestibular system.
  
3] Miscelleneous Head Sensations –
These include hyperventilation syndrome, hypoglycemia or somatic symptoms of a clinical depression. These patients will have a normal neurological examination, or vestibular function test.
  
4] Gait Disturbaces
Some individuals with gait disorders complain of dizziness, despite the absence of vertigo or other abnormal cephalic sensations. The term “dizziness” is used to describe disturbed a mobilty.
e.g: Peripheral neuropathy, Myelopathy, Spasticity, Parkinsonian rigidity, Cerebellar ataxia.
  
Their may be mild associated light headedness, with impaired sensations from the feet, or poor vision. This is more common in elderly persons who complain of dizziness only during ambulation. This is because a decreased position sense [secondary to neuropathy or myelopathy] and poor vision create an over reliance on the aging vestibular apparatus.
   

Light headedness/Fainting/Giddiness

Spinning Sensation

Present

Absent

1. Vestibular dysfunction
   Nausea, postural unsteadiness
   Gait ataxia, nystagmus

2. Benign positional vertigo
   H/o head trauma
   Vertigo on Head Movement in lying    
   in lying down position

3. Drug Inducted Vertigo
   Streptomycin, aminoglycosides, aspiring,
   frusemide

4. Psychogenic Vertigo
   Presence of agoraphobia
   Nystagmus absent

5. New/incorrect glasses
   Correction of glasses

Faintness

Neurological signs

Present

Absent

T.I.A
Weakness of one side of body Aphasia 
Complete recovery within 24 hours
H/o risk factors like high B.P. smoking, diabetes

1. Anxiety
Palpitation
Restlessness/panic
Not relieved by 
lying down
No loss of
Consciousness

2. Hypoglycemia
Occurs 2-3 hrs after lunch
Confusion/loss of conciousness H/o diabetic.

3. Hysteria
No sings of anxiety
No Change in pulse rate
B.P. or colour of skin      
    

 

   

   
Romberg Test, Gait Test
Caloric Testing, Electrorystagmography [ENG]
 
Treatment
Antihistamines- Meclizine Promethazine
Clinnarizine, Scopolamine

Top
        

   
H/o head trauma
Audiometry and caloric testing within normal limits
 
Treatment
Specific exercise program of head and neck.

Top
       

    
Stop the drug [e.g. Aspirin, Streptomycin, Aminoglycoside]
Streptomycin, aminoglycoside.

Top
   

  
No symptoms of vestibular system or CNS involvement.
 
Treatment
Assurance, Alprazolam

Top 
    


Correction of Glasses

Top
  

TIA


Absecve of ear symptoms
Presence of risk factors
e.g. Family History
Smoking
High B.P.
Diabetes
High Blood Cholesterol

Treatment
Stop Smoking
Low fat diet
Treatment of High B.P. and Diabetes
Aspirin

Top
    


Forced hyperventilation for one minute will reproduce an attack of anxiety. No ear symptoms. No loss of Consciousness.

Top
   


Glucose tolerance test matching between exercise and insulin dosage.

Top
   


No anxiety
No change in pulse rate
B.P. or skin colour
Hysteric personality

Treatment
Psychiatric counseling behavioral therapy

Top
 

  

By |2022-07-20T16:42:44+00:00July 20, 2022|Uncategorized|Comments Off on Dizziness

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